oregano chemicals

9 Amazing Oregano compounds.

Essential oils of oregano are widely recognised for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and anti-fungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and cancer suppressor agents.

These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding essential oils of oregano and their beneficial effects on health.

Principle components of essential oils of different oregano species.

Oregano SpeciesOriginComponentsYield *Reference
H. patensMexicoThymol, trans-piperitol, carvacrol acetate, carvacrol, camphene, β-myrcene, γ-terpinene, cis-p-mentha-1(7), 8-dien-2-ol, α-muurolene, α-calacorene, bulnesol, cadalene, viridiflorol.NR[16]
L. grandisBrazilCarvacrol (37.12%), p-cymene (11.64%), thymol (7.83%), β-caryophyllene (3.93%).2.7%[38]
L. graveolensMexicoThymol, carvacrol acetate, carvacrol, camphene, β-myrcene, γ-terpinene, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, viridiflorol.NR[16]
L. origanoidesColombiaThymol (78.7%), p-cymene (6.6%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), trans-β-caryophyllene (2.1%).NR[39]
L. palmeriMexicoThymol, α-cedrene, trans-piperitol, eugenol, carvacrol acetate, β-selinene, γ-cadinene, spathulenol.NR[16]
O. acutidensMexicoCarvacrol (8.76–24.57%), p-cymene (14.25–22.37%), thymol (15.11–21.39%).5.0–6.0%[40]
TurkeyCarvacrol (76.21%), p-cymene (7.42%), borneol (3.19%), γ-terpinene (1.38%).1.45%[41]
TurkeyCarvacrol (65.13%), meta-cymene (9.15%), trans-β-caryophyllene (4.43%), γ-terpinene (3.54%).3.1%[42]
O. x appliiArgentinaThymol (30.77%), trans-sabinene hydrate (29.63%), γ-terpinene (4.4%), terpinen-4-ol (3.23%).1.83 ± 0.27 mg/g dw[43]
O. ehrenbergiiLebanonCarvacrol (79.0%), p-cymene (4.4%), carvacrol methyl ether (2.7%), γ-terpinene (2.6%).3.19%[44]
O. bilgeriTurkeyCarvacrol (84.30–90.20%), p-cymene (3.40–5.85%), γ-terpinene (0.47–1.20%), thymol (0.69–1.08%).0.54–0.57%[33]
O. libanoticumLebanonβ-Caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%), germacrene D (17.2%), thymol methyl ether (10.5%).0.16%[44]
O. majoranaBrazil1,8-Cineole (20.9%), terpinen-4-ol(20.4%), γ-terpinene (8.5%), p-cymene (7.0%).NR[45]
O. x majoricumColombiatrans-Sabinene hydrate (14.5%), γ-terpinene (14.0%), carvacrol methyl ether (6.0%), terpinen-4-ol (6.0%).NR[39]
TurkeyLimonene (88.01%), thymol (11.98%).NR[46]
Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (24.3–28.1%), thymol (12.1–17.4%), γ-terpinene (7.0–7.5%).NR[22]
Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (36.77%), thymol (17.77%), γ-terpinene (5.9%), α-terpinene (3.9%).3.9 ± 0.25 mg/g dw[43]
O. hypericifoliumTurkeyp-Cymene (34.33%), carvacrol (21.76%), thymol (19.54%), γ-terpinene (13.91%).2.9%[47]
O. onitesGreeceCarvacrol (79.63%), γ-terpinene (3.89%), p-cymene (3.51%), β-caryophyllene (2.24%).3.62%[18]
GreeceCarvacrol (62.6%), p-cymene (8.87%), γ-terpinene (8.45%), β-myrcene (2.92%).NR[48]
GreeceCarvacrol (69.0–92.6%), p-cymene (0.5–9.5%), γ-terpinene (0.3–7.9%), borneol (0.8–5.5%).3.0–7.0%[49]
TurkeyCarvacrol (85.86%), γ-terpinene (4.43%), β-phellandrene (3.20%), p-cymene (1.83%).4.7 ± 0.06%[21]
TurkeyCarvacrol (83.97–88.65%), thymol (0.80–7.48%), γ-terpinene (2.63–6.15%), p-cymene (1.52–3.16%).2.5–3.2%[50]
O. syriacumEgyptCarvacrol (81.38%), p-cymene (8.48%), γ-terpinene (1.98%), β-myrcene (1.32%).5.5%[51]
EgyptThymol (31.73%), γ-terpinene (14.32%), linalool (9.44%), terpinen-4-ol (7.68%).4.63%[51]
EgyptThymol (21.04%), γ-terpinene (18.96%), terpinen-4-ol (17.20%), α-terpinene (7.41%).0.6%[52]
LebanonCarvacrol (60.8%), p-cymene (8.4%), thymol (7.9%), γ-terpinene (7.5%).1.65%[44]
O. syriacum ssp. syriacumJordanThymol (51.8%), carvacrol (34.4%), p-cymene (3.9%).2.0–2.2%[53]
JordanThymol (72.4%), γ-terpinene (7.8%), p-cymene (5.4%), carvacrol (3.5%).2.0–2.2%
O. vulgare L.Argentinap-Cymene (26.00%), γ-terpinene (21.89%), terpinen-4-ol (16.29%), β-caryophyllene (8.25%).NR[54]
ArgentinaCarvacrol (26.70%), p-cymene (15.20%), γ-terpinene (15.10%), terpinene (7.50%).NR[55]
Argentinaγ-Terpinene (25.1%), terpinen-4-ol (16.7%), carvacrol (16.2%), α-terpinene (8.54%).NR[56]
Argentinaγ-Terpinene (32.1%), α-terpinene (15.1%), p-cymene (8.0%), thymol (8.0%).NR[57]
ArgentinaCarvacrol (81.92%), γ-terpinene (4.49%), thymol (3.5%), p-cymene (3.07%).NR[58]
BrazilCarvacrol (73.9%), γ-terpinene (3.6%), thymol (3.0%), β-caryophyllene (2.8%).NR[45]
Chilecis-β-Terpineol (16.49%), thymol (13.26%), terpinen-4-ol (10.24%), α-terpineol (4.35%).NR[59]
ChinaCarvacrol (30.73%), thymol (18.81%), p-cymene (10.88%), β-caryophyllene (8.21%).NR[37]
Chinaβ-Citronellol (85.3%), citronellol acetate (5.2%), β-citronellal (1.2%).0.7%[60]
ChinaThymol (42.9%), citronellol (12.2%), β-caryophyllene (7.8%), p-cymen-2-ol (7.5%).0.3%[60]
Chinaβ-Citronellol (75.0%), geraniol (7.7%), citronellol acetate (3.4%).0.3%[60]
China1,8-Cineole (20.8%), β-caryophyllene (10.2%), eugenol methyl ether (9.8%), citronellol (8.8%).0.3%[60]
ChinaCaryophyllene oxide (32.9%), β-caryophyllene (17.7%), citronellol (10.2%), germacrene D (9.8%).0.1%[60]
ColombiaThymol (21.5%), p-cymene (21.0%), γ-terpinene (20.3%), α-terpinene (5.9%).NR[39]
GreeceCarvacrol (63.03%), thymol (15.09%), p-cymene (10.47%), γ-terpinene (3.43%).NR[61]
IndiaCarvacrol (35.02–62.81%), p-cymene (8.60–46.59%), γ-terpinene (2.49–19.11%).0.20–1.30%[62]
IranCarvacrol (29.85%), γ-terpinene (20.94%), α-himachalene (12.17%), β-pinene (11.67%).0.80%[63]
IranCarvacrol (23.54%), γ-terpinene (20.50%), thymol (15.41%), germacrene D-4-ol (9.26%).1.26%[63]
IranCarvacrol (59.37%), γ-terpinene (18.36%), cedrene (6.65%).1.66%[63]
IranCarvacrol (58.51%), humulene (11.46%), γ-terpinene (9.56%).0.93%[63]
IranCarvacrol (67.09%), γ-terpinene (7.71%), humulene (7.67%).1.36%[63]
ItalyCavacrol (65.94%), p-cymene (9.33%), γ-terpinene (5.25%), β-caryophyllene (3.72%).NR[64]
ItalyCarvacrol (71.8%), p-cymene (11.6%), β-caryophyllene (2.7%), linalool (1.8%).NR[65]
MoroccoCarvacrol (34.0%), γ-terpinene (21.6%), p-cymene (9.4%), thymol (3.3%).2.7%[66]
Pakistanβ-Citronellol (72.7%), thymol (7.2%), citronellol acetate (5.9%).0.3%[60]
PolandCarvacrol (26.38–36.72%), thymol (16.59–25.58%), γ-terpinene (10.06–16.11%), p-cymene (6.09–6.76%).NR[31]
PortugalCarvacrol (14.5%), β-fenchyl alcohol (12.8%), γ-terpinene (11.6%), δ-terpineol (7.5%).NR[67]
SerbiaSabinene (10.2%), terpinen-4-ol (9.3%), 1,8-cineole (5.8%), γ-terpinene (5.6%).0.17%[68]
SerbiaCarvacrol (64.5%), p-cymene (10.9%), γ-terpinene (10.8%), thymol (3.5%).1.5%[69]
SerbiaCarvacrol (64.5%), p-cymene (10.9%), γ-terpinene (10.8%), thymol (3.5%).NR[70]
SerbiaCarvacrol (77.6%), p-cymene (5.14%), trans-β-caryophyllene (2.45%), linalool (2.44%).NR[71]
SpainTerpinen-4-ol (24.57%), carvacrol (16.09%), thymol (9.03%), γ-terpinene (6.20%).516 mg/plant[27]
USACarvacrol (17.9–81.8%), p-cymene (2.62–25.7%), γ-terpinene (2.5–19.4%), β-myrcene (0.58–6.06%).0.114–2.312%[35]
O. vulgare L. ssp. glandulosumAlgeriaThymol (34.2%), carvacrol (30.5%), γ-terpinene (13.4%), p-cymene (6.6%).2.0–2.2%[53]
AlgeriaThymol (51.1%), γ-terpinene (14.5%), p-cymene (7.5%), carvacrol (6.8%).2.0–2.2%[53]
Tunisiap-Cymene (35.7–46.3%), thymol (18.4–39.1%), γ-terpinene (11.7–24.2%), carvacrol (1.7–15.1%).2.5–4.6%[72]
TunisiaThymol (31.8–46.1%), p-cymene (11.5–35.7%), γ-terpinene (24.0–27.1%), α-terpinene (1.9–3.2%).4.3–5.8%[73]
TunisiaCarvacrol (65.01%), p-cymene (9.00%), γ-terpinene (4.25%), borneol (3.19%).1.87–3.42%[74]
O. vulgare L. ssp. gracileIranCarvacrol (46.86%), γ-terpinene (14.16%), p-cymene (11.63%), carvacrol methyl ether (5.97%).≈2.0%[29]
TurkeyThymol (7.02–40.04%), carvacrol (8.21–33.21%), γ-terpinene (9.15–27.82%), p-cymene (3.07–23.52%).0.25–0.50%[75]
O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtumArgentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (22.9%), thymol (18.6%), γ-terpinene (7.1%), terpinen-4-ol (6.2%).NR[22]
Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (17.9%), thymol (17.1%), terpinen-4-ol (9.5%), γ-terpinene (8.0%).NR[22]
Argentinaγ-Terpinene (13.7%), terpinen-4-ol (11.2%), α-terpinene (9.9%), trans-sabinene hydrate (8.3%).NR[76]
ColombiaCarvacrol (90.3%), thymol (3.5%), p-cymene (2.7%), γ-terpinene (1.0%).NR[39]
GreeceCarvacrol (70.38%), p-cymene (8.17%), γ-terpinene (7.78%), β-myrcene (2.37%).NR[48]
GreeceCarvacrol (90.29%), γ-terpinene (3.09%), p-cymene (2.25%), β-caryophyllene (1.81%).7.77%[18]
GreeceCarvacrol (81.28–91.21%), p-cymene (1.52–6.40%), γ-terpinene (0.49–4.01%), β-caryophyllene (0.94–2.03%).4.71–5.00%[77]
GreeceCarvacrol (56.46–82.70%), p-cymene (9.54–21.40%), β-disavolene (1.09–3.06%).0.63–4.25%[78]
HungaryCarvacrol (82.75%), p-cymene (6.58%), γ-terpinene (5.78%).4.46%[30]
Italyterpinen-4-ol (13.27–17.51%), γ-terpinene (14.58–14.95%), carvacrol (12.31–14.58%), p-cymene (8.43–10.07%).0.063–0.165%[79]
ItalyThymol (37.9%), γ-terpinene (24.5%), p-cymene (16.3%), α-terpinene (4.3%).NR[80]
Italyγ-Terpinene (29.41%), thymol (26.86%), p-cymene (8.20%), α-terpinene (5.93%).5.4%[81]
ItalyThymol (37.22%), γ-terpinene (26.37%), p-cymene (6.83%), α-terpinene (4.02%).2.4%[81]
ItalyThymol (36.46%), γ-terpinene (20.77%), p-cymene (8.31%), carvacrol methyl ether (6.21%).3.6%[81]
ItalyThymol (30.25%), γ-terpinene (25.89%), p-cymene (7.62%), carvacrol methyl ether (5.63%).4.2%[81]
ItalyThymol y carvacrol (65.3–84.7%), linalool (0.1–2.6%), carvacrol methyl ether (0.4–1.9%).1.0–2.7%[82]
ItalyThymol (18.16–56.37%), γ-terpinene (12.70–32.70%), p-cymene (8.22–10.30%).1.7–4.5%[28]
LithuaniaCarvacrol (72.4–88.2%), γ-terpinene (4.1–8.7%), p-cymene (2.0–3.2%), β-caryophyllene (0.9–3.0%).35.50–325.45 dm3/ha[24]
SerbiaCarvacrol (74.65%), p-cymene (5.87%), γ-terpinene (5.04%), trans-β-caryophyllene (1.76%).1.34%[36]
TurkeyLinalool (96.31%), β-caryophyllene (1.27%).7.31%[83]
TurkeyCarvacrol (80.09%), γ-terpinene (12.01%), p-cymene (1.72%), α-terpinene (1.58%).5.9 ± 0.02%[21]
O. vulgare L. ssp. virensArgentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (27.77%), thymol (26.1%), γ-terpinene (5.9%), α-terpinene (4.17%).2.17 ± 0.32 mg/g dw[43]
Iran(Z)-α-Bisabolene (39.17%), sabinene (11.52%), carvacrol (5.23%), β-bisabolene (4.24%).≈0.3%[29]
Portugalα-Terpineol (0.1–65.1%), γ-terpinene (0.3–34.25), linalool (2.0–27.4%), carvacrol (0–34.2%), E-caryophyllene (2.4–11.0%).0.8–1.2%[84]
O. vulgare L. ssp. vulgareArgentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (23.4–27.2%), thymol (14.4–17.2%), terpinen-4-ol (7.8–11.0%), γ-terpinene (7.3–9.8%).NR[22]
Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (32.47%), thymol (20.5%), γ-terpinene (15.47%), terpinen-4-ol (5.03%).1.97 ± 0.22 mg/g dw[43]
IranThymol (37.13%), γ-terpinene (9.67%), carvacrol (9.57%), carvacrol methyl ether (6.88%).0.5%[85]
ItalySpathulenol (18.6%), carvacrol (11.7%), β-caryophyllene (8.8%), terpinen-4-ol (5.6%).0.13%[26]
ItalyCarvacrol (14.3%), spathulenol (9.4%), β-caryophyllene (5.3%), terpinen-4-ol (5.0%).0.18%[26]
LithuaniaSabinene (6.6–28.2%), β-caryophyllene (7.3–15.5%), E-β-ocimene (4.4–15.1%), allo-ocimene (7.7–12.1%).3.08–36.65 dm3/ha[24]
TurkeyThymol (58.31%), carvacrol (16.11%), p-cymene (13.45%), γ-terpinene (4.64%).5.09%[83]
PolandSabinene (10.85–25.46%), Z-(β)-ocimene (9.10–16.33%), germacrene D (9.36–15.34%), E-caryophyllene (9.38–12.87%).0.66–0.86%[86]

* dry weight (dw); NR: not reported.

Source NIH.

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