CHUKCHI

 
The ancient Arctic #Chukchi live on the peninsula of the Chukotka. Unlike other native groups of Siberia, they have never been conquered by Russian troops. Their environment and traditional culture endured destruction under Soviet rule, by weapon testing and pollution.
“The way you treat your dog in this life determines your place in heaven”
Due to the harsh climate and difficulty of life in the tundra, hospitality and generosity are highly prized among the Chukchi. They believe that all natural phenomena are considered to have their own spirits. Traditional lifestyle still survives but is increasingly supplemented.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

‘When I saw the vastness of the white landscape, my mind was overwhelmed with clarity’

ARCTIC TUNDRA, VANKAREM, CHUKOTKA

February 2012
Ancient legends and archaeological evidence suggest that Chukchi takeover of Chukotka was anything but peaceful.
Unlike other native groups of Siberia, they were fiercely militant and have never been conquered by Russian troops. Under Soviet rule, the Chukchi people endured mass imprisonment and destruction of their traditional culture.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

PEOPLE FROM THE SECOND BRIGADE

February 2012
The Chukchi are an ancient Arctic people who chiefly live on the peninsula of Chukotka. They are unusual among the Northern people in having two distinct cultures: The nomadic reindeer herders (Chauchu) who live in the interior of the peninsula,and the village-based marine  mammal hunters (Ankalyn) who live along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

VLADILEN KAVRI

February 2012
The staple foods eaten by the inland Chukchi are products of reindeer farming: boiled venison, reindeer brains and bone marrow, and reindeerblood soup.
One traditional dish, rilkeil, is made from semi-digested moss from a  slaughtered reindeer’s stomach mixed with blood, fat, and pieces of boiled
reindeer intestine. Coastal Chukchi cuisine is based on boiled walrus, seal,  whale meat/fat and seaweed. Both groups eat frozen fish and edible leaves and roots.
Traditional Chukchi cuisine is now supplemented with canned vegetables and other foodstuffs purchased in stores.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

FOLK ART

February 2012
Sculpture and carving on bone and walrus tusk are the most highly developed forms of folk art among the Chukchi. Common traditional themes are landscapes and scenes from everyday life: hunting parties, reindeer herding and animals native to Chukotka. In traditional Chukchi society, only men engage in these arts. Chukchi women are skilled at sewing and embroidering.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

‘It is considered unseemly for a man to perform work usually done by women’

  • Jimmy Nelson

REINDEER SECOND BRIGADE

February 2012
Although both sexes share responsibility for running the household, they have different tasks. Chukchi men drive their reindeer in search of  vegetation and travel to the edge of the taiga to hunt sea mammals and gather firewood and fish. The women’s work includes cleaning and repairing the yaranga, cooking food, sewing and repairing clothing and preparing reindeer or walrus hides.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

CHUKOTKA

February 2012
The coastal Chukchi, like the neighbouring Eskimo, enjoy tossing each other high into the air on walrusskin blankets. Chukchi of all ages traditionally enjoy singing, dancing, listening to folk tales and reciting tongue twisters.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

CHUKCHI TRADITIONS

February 2012
The traditional dress for Chukchi women is a kerker, a knee-length coverall made from reindeer or seal hide and trimmed with fox, wolverine, wolf
or dog fur. On holidays and special occasions, women can be seen wearing robe-like dresses of fawn skins beautifully decorated with beads, embroidery and fur trimmings.
At important traditional events, we see men wearing loose shirts and trousers made of the same material.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

VYACHESLAV & OLESYA

February 2012
Pollution, weapons testing, strip mining and overuse of industrial equipment and vehicles have greatly damaged Chukotka’s environment and endangered its ability to support traditional Chukchi activities.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

YARANGA SECOND BRIGADE

February 2012
For at least a few hundred years, the coneshaped yaranga has been the traditional home of Chukchi reindeer herders. It takes about 80 reindeer skins to build a yaranga. Nowadays, fewer and fewer Chukchi live in yarangas. The coastal Chukchi traditionally used dogsleds and skin
boats for transportation, while inland Chukchi rode in sledges pulled by reindeer. These traditional methods of transportation still survive, but are increasingly supplemented by air travel, motorboats, and snowmobiles.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

SECOND BRIGADE, CHUKOTKA

February 2012
The Chukchi, who call themselves the Lygoravetlat – meaning ‘genuine people’ – presently number slightly over 15,000. Their territory is mostly treeless tundra. The climate is harsh, with winter temperatures sometimes dropping as low as minus 54°C.  The cool summers average around 10°C.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

CHUKCHI

February 2012
Traditional Chukchi sports are reindeer and dog-sled races, wrestling, and foot races. Competitions of these types are often performed following the reindeer sacrifices of the inland Chukchi and the sea-spirit sacrifices of the coastal Chukchi.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

MYSTERY

February 2012
Chukchi beliefs and practices are best described as a form of shamanism. Animals, plants, heavenly bodies, rivers, forests and other natural phenomena are all considered to have their own spirits. During their rituals, Chukchi shamans fall into trances (sometimes with the aid of
hallucinogenic mushrooms), communicate with the spirits, allow the spirits to speak through them, predict the future, and cast spells of various kinds.
The most important traditional Chukchi holidays were festivals in which sacrifices were made to the spirits that the Chukchi depended upon for their survival.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

CHUKCHI TRADITIONS

February 2012
Due to the harsh climate and difficulty of life in the tundra, hospitality and generosity are highly prized among the Chukchi. It is forbidden to refuse anyone, even a stranger, shelter and food.
The community is expected to provide for orphans, widows and the poor. Miserliness is considered the worst character defect a person can have.
CHUKCHI -  - CHUKCHI - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

#hievoo, #olive-oil, #race, #tribes

The Maori People

The Maori People

The long and intriguing story of the origin of the indigenous Maori can be traced back to the 13th century, the mythical homeland Hawaiki, Eastern Polynesia. Due to centuries of isolation, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and unique mythology.
 

The long and intriguing story of the origin of the indigenous Maori people can be traced back to the 13th century, the mythical homeland Hawaiki, Eastern Polynesia. Due to centuries of isolation, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and unique mythology.
“My language is my awakening, my language is the window to my soul”
Defining aspects of Maori traditional culture include art, dance, legends, tattoos and community. While the arrival of European colonists in the 18th century had a profound impact on the Maori way of life, many aspects of traditional society have survived into the 21st century.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

HARURU FALLS, NORTH ISLAND

January 2011
As a polytheist culture, the Maori worshipped many gods, goddesses and spirits. Maori believe that ancestors and supernatural beings are ever-present and able to help the  in times of need. Myths are set in the remote past. They present Maori ideas about the creation of the universe and the origins of gods and of people.
The mythology accounts for natural phenomena, the weather, the stars and the moon, the fish in the sea, the birds of the forest, and the forests themselves. The Maori understanding of the development of the universe was expressed in genealogical form.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

TA MOKO

January 2011
Defining aspects of Maori traditional culture include art, legends, tattoos(Ta Moko), performances (notably Kapa Haka), customs, hospitality and community.
Tattooing has always been an important part of Maori culture. Receiving tattoos is an important step to maturity and there are many rites and rituals associated with the event. Every member of a Maori tribe had a specific role and a specific place within the social order.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

ROBERT DAVIS

January 2011
These journeys established the Maori as daring and resourceful adventurers, and as one of the greatest navigating peoples of all time. Due to centuries of isolation from the rest of the world, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and unique mythology.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

HUKA FALLS

January 2011
While the arrival of Europeans had a profound impact on the Maori way of life, many aspects of traditional society have survived into the 21st century. The Maori participate fully in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, leading largely Western lifestyles while also maintaining their own cultural and social customs.
Traditional kinship ties are actively maintained, and the whanau (extended family) in particular remains an integral part of Maori life. Though many Maori migrated to larger rural towns and cities, they remained almost exclusively a rural population.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

TAUPO VILLAGE

January 2011
Kai is the Maori word for food. The Maori diet was based on birds and fish, supplemented by wild herbs and roots. In their tribal gardens, Maori also grew root crops including yams, gourds and kumara (sweet potatoes).
The Maori usually cooked in underground ovens called Hangi. To this day, this traditional cooking method is still used on special occasions, creating feasts made from traditional ingredients.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

DR PITA SHARPLES

January 2011
The Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand and their story is both long and intriguing. On the basis of oral records, archaeological finds and genetic analyses, we can place the arrival of Maori in New Zealand in the thirteenth century AD.
The origin of the Maori has been reliably traced to the islands of Eastern Polynesia. Their journey to New Zealand from the mythical homeland Hawaiki occurred in a number of Epic Waka (canoe) voyages over a significant period of time. Legend has it that twelve large canoes each carried a different tribe (Iwi). Even today, most Maori people can tell which original tribe they are descendants of.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

PROMISE TANIWHA

January 2011
By the end of the nineteenth century, the effects of early colonisation, wars and epidemics had reduced the Maori population to a low of around 40,000. In the early 20th century, the Maori population numbers began to recover and Maori culture underwent a renaissance. There are currently around 650,000 Maori in New Zealand.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

THE ORDINARY

January 2011
The early Maori were very peaceful in comparison to later generations, amongst whom a warfare culture emerged with many battles between tribes.
The early settlers did not call themselves Maori until the arrival of the European colonists in the 18th century. They then needed a name to mark their distinction from the newcomers and used Maori, meaning ‘ordinary’ (as in different from the extraordinary gods).
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

TAUPO VILLAGE, NORTH ISLAND

January 2011
Maori society is particularly visible at the marae. Formerly the central meeting spaces in traditional villages, marae frequently host events such as weddings, funerals and other large gatherings, with traditional protocol and etiquette usually observed. These events are great occasions to show off their colourful traditional garments, jewellery, intricate tattoos, dances and chants: in short, to reestablish Maori traditions.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

HAKA WAR

January 2011
The haka war dance, meant to intimidate the enemy, is one of the best-known cultural traditions of the Maori. These dances are accompanied by song and body percussion created by clapping hands, stomping feet and slapping thighs. The dance itself involves energetic postures representing warlike and aggressive poses.
Maori chanting follows very strict rules. To break a chant in midstream is to invite disaster or even death for a community. These chants often tell of family lines or the exploits of ancestors.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

 

#isolated, #people, #race, #tribes

The Maori People

The Maori People

The long and intriguing story of the origin of the indigenous Maori can be traced back to the 13th century, the mythical homeland Hawaiki, Eastern Polynesia. Due to centuries of isolation, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and unique mythology.
 

The long and intriguing story of the origin of the indigenous Maori people can be traced back to the 13th century, the mythical homeland Hawaiki, Eastern Polynesia. Due to centuries of isolation, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and unique mythology.
“My language is my awakening, my language is the window to my soul”
Defining aspects of Maori traditional culture include art, dance, legends, tattoos and community. While the arrival of European colonists in the 18th century had a profound impact on the Maori way of life, many aspects of traditional society have survived into the 21st century.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

HARURU FALLS, NORTH ISLAND

January 2011
As a polytheist culture, the Maori worshipped many gods, goddesses and spirits. Maori believe that ancestors and supernatural beings are ever-present and able to help the  in times of need. Myths are set in the remote past. They present Maori ideas about the creation of the universe and the origins of gods and of people.
The mythology accounts for natural phenomena, the weather, the stars and the moon, the fish in the sea, the birds of the forest, and the forests themselves. The Maori understanding of the development of the universe was expressed in genealogical form.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

TA MOKO

January 2011
Defining aspects of Maori traditional culture include art, legends, tattoos(Ta Moko), performances (notably Kapa Haka), customs, hospitality and community.
Tattooing has always been an important part of Maori culture. Receiving tattoos is an important step to maturity and there are many rites and rituals associated with the event. Every member of a Maori tribe had a specific role and a specific place within the social order.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

ROBERT DAVIS

January 2011
These journeys established the Maori as daring and resourceful adventurers, and as one of the greatest navigating peoples of all time. Due to centuries of isolation from the rest of the world, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and unique mythology.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

HUKA FALLS

January 2011
While the arrival of Europeans had a profound impact on the Maori way of life, many aspects of traditional society have survived into the 21st century. The Maori participate fully in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, leading largely Western lifestyles while also maintaining their own cultural and social customs.
Traditional kinship ties are actively maintained, and the whanau (extended family) in particular remains an integral part of Maori life. Though many Maori migrated to larger rural towns and cities, they remained almost exclusively a rural population.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

TAUPO VILLAGE

January 2011
Kai is the Maori word for food. The Maori diet was based on birds and fish, supplemented by wild herbs and roots. In their tribal gardens, Maori also grew root crops including yams, gourds and kumara (sweet potatoes).
The Maori usually cooked in underground ovens called Hangi. To this day, this traditional cooking method is still used on special occasions, creating feasts made from traditional ingredients.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

DR PITA SHARPLES

January 2011
The Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand and their story is both long and intriguing. On the basis of oral records, archaeological finds and genetic analyses, we can place the arrival of Maori in New Zealand in the thirteenth century AD.
The origin of the Maori has been reliably traced to the islands of Eastern Polynesia. Their journey to New Zealand from the mythical homeland Hawaiki occurred in a number of Epic Waka (canoe) voyages over a significant period of time. Legend has it that twelve large canoes each carried a different tribe (Iwi). Even today, most Maori people can tell which original tribe they are descendants of.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

PROMISE TANIWHA

January 2011
By the end of the nineteenth century, the effects of early colonisation, wars and epidemics had reduced the Maori population to a low of around 40,000. In the early 20th century, the Maori population numbers began to recover and Maori culture underwent a renaissance. There are currently around 650,000 Maori in New Zealand.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

THE ORDINARY

January 2011
The early Maori were very peaceful in comparison to later generations, amongst whom a warfare culture emerged with many battles between tribes.
The early settlers did not call themselves Maori until the arrival of the European colonists in the 18th century. They then needed a name to mark their distinction from the newcomers and used Maori, meaning ‘ordinary’ (as in different from the extraordinary gods).
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

TAUPO VILLAGE, NORTH ISLAND

January 2011
Maori society is particularly visible at the marae. Formerly the central meeting spaces in traditional villages, marae frequently host events such as weddings, funerals and other large gatherings, with traditional protocol and etiquette usually observed. These events are great occasions to show off their colourful traditional garments, jewellery, intricate tattoos, dances and chants: in short, to reestablish Maori traditions.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

HAKA WAR

January 2011
The haka war dance, meant to intimidate the enemy, is one of the best-known cultural traditions of the Maori. These dances are accompanied by song and body percussion created by clapping hands, stomping feet and slapping thighs. The dance itself involves energetic postures representing warlike and aggressive poses.
Maori chanting follows very strict rules. To break a chant in midstream is to invite disaster or even death for a community. These chants often tell of family lines or the exploits of ancestors.
The Maori -  - The Maori People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

 

#isolated, #people, #race, #tribes

The Kalam People

#Kalam

The eastern half of New Guinea gained full independence from Australia in 1975, when Papua New Guinea was born. The indigenous population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Traditionally, the different tribes scattered across the highland plateau, live in small agrarian clans.

The eastern half of New Guinea gained full independence from Australia in 1975, when Papua New Guinea was born. The indigenous population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Traditionally, the different groups scattered across the highland plateau, live in small agrarian clans.
“Knowledge is only rumour until it is in the muscle”
The first visitors were impressed to find valleys of carefully planned gardens and irrigation ditches. The women of the indigenous groups are exceptional farmers. The men hunt and fight other tribes over land, pigs and women. Great effort is made to impress the enemy with terrifying masks, wigs and paint.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

“We  wouldn’t have acquired a fraction of the extraordinary images had we gone in the measured, sensible way.”

RAINBOW OVER SIMBAI

2010
Nested high in the mountains Simbai is a village that is unreachable except by prop plane. It takes days walking through the bush through steep mud slick hills. With no roads, it is easy to get lost.
This has kept the culture strong and rich and from assimilating to the rest of the world. Simbai really is like stepping into another world.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

KALAM PIERCE THEIR NOSE AS INITIATION FOR YOUNG BOYS

2010
Simbai is the home of the Kalam in the heart of the highlands of Madang. It is one of Papua New Guinea’s most secluded places where  still live a subsistence lifestyle in traditional villages scattered through pristine wilderness territory and untouched by Westernisation.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

BODY DECORATIONS

2010
When it comes to body decorations, their bodies are heavily donned with “Bilas” (body ornaments) such as large Kina shells, Hornbill (Kokomo)
beak necklaces, cuscus fur, wild garden flowers and arm bands.
Pig fat provides the final shine.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

BIRD FEATHERS & KINA SHELLS

2010
The crowns of the head-dresses are decorated with bird feathers comprising those of the cockatoo, parrots, lorikeets and bird of paradise species.
Small round Kina shells are hooked on to and hang suspended from the hole in the nose while others insert King of Saxony bird of paradise feathers.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

KALAM MEN AND BOYS

2010
The eastern half of New Guinea, the world’s second largest island, gained full independence from Australia in 1975, when the nation of Papua New Guinea was born. The indigenous population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world.
It is believed that the first Papua New Guineans migrated to the island over 45,000 years ago. Today, over three million people, approximately half of the total population, live in the highlands.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

LIFE IS SIMPLE IN HIGHLAND VILLAGES

2010
The highlanders live by hunting, done primarily by men, and by gathering plants and growing crops, done primarily by women. The men help clear
the land, but the rest of the cultivation is the responsibility of the women.
The residents have plenty of good food, close-knit families and a great respect for the wonders of nature.
Kalam -  - The Kalam People - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

#isolated, #people, #race, #tribes

Kalam

#Kalam

The eastern half of New Guinea gained full independence from Australia in 1975, when Papua New Guinea was born. The indigenous population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Traditionally, the different groups scattered across the highland plateau, live in small agrarian clans.
“Knowledge is only rumour until it is in the muscle”
The first visitors were impressed to find valleys of carefully planned gardens and irrigation ditches. The women of the indigenous groups are exceptional farmers. The men hunt and fight other tribes over land, pigs and women. Great effort is made to impress the enemy with terrifying masks, wigs and paint.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

“We  wouldn’t have acquired a fraction of the extraordinary images had we gone in the measured, sensible way.”

RAINBOW OVER SIMBAI

2010
Nested high in the mountains Simbai is a village that is unreachable except by prop plane. It takes days walking through the bush through steep mud slick hills. With no roads, it is easy to get lost.
This has kept the culture strong and rich and from assimilating to the rest of the world. Simbai really is like stepping into another world.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

KALAM PIERCE THEIR NOSE AS INITIATION FOR YOUNG BOYS

2010
Simbai is the home of the Kalam in the heart of the highlands of Madang. It is one of Papua New Guinea’s most secluded places where  still live a subsistence lifestyle in traditional villages scattered through pristine wilderness territory and untouched by Westernisation.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

BODY DECORATIONS

2010
When it comes to body decorations, their bodies are heavily donned with “Bilas” (body ornaments) such as large Kina shells, Hornbill (Kokomo)
beak necklaces, cuscus fur, wild garden flowers and arm bands.
Pig fat provides the final shine.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

BIRD FEATHERS & KINA SHELLS

2010
The crowns of the head-dresses are decorated with bird feathers comprising those of the cockatoo, parrots, lorikeets and bird of paradise species.
Small round Kina shells are hooked on to and hang suspended from the hole in the nose while others insert King of Saxony bird of paradise feathers.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

KALAM MEN AND BOYS

2010
The eastern half of New Guinea, the world’s second largest island, gained full independence from Australia in 1975, when the nation of Papua New Guinea was born. The indigenous population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world.
It is believed that the first Papua New Guineans migrated to the island over 45,000 years ago. Today, over three million people, approximately half of the total population, live in the highlands.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

LIFE IS SIMPLE IN HIGHLAND VILLAGES

2010
The highlanders live by hunting, done primarily by men, and by gathering plants and growing crops, done primarily by women. The men help clear
the land, but the rest of the cultivation is the responsibility of the women.
The residents have plenty of good food, close-knit families and a great respect for the wonders of nature.
Kalam -  - Kalam - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

#isolated, #people, #race, #tribes

Goroka

The indigenous population of the world’s second largest island is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. The harsh terrain and historic inter-tribal warfare have lead to village isolation and the proliferation of distinct languages. A number of different tribes are scattered across the highland plateau.

goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso
goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso
goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso
goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso
goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso
goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso
goroka -  - Goroka - I am Mahir - puc / @puccaso

#isolated, #people, #race, #tribes