Part A. Expectation

Part A. Expectation

What is the difference between advice and expectation?

  • Expectation refers to events or situations that we believe to be true.

Should and ought to give this meaning.


  • She should be researching now.  
  • He ought to be in the office this morning.
  • She shouldn’t be at home now.



  • I should finish my history course in September.
  • He ought to get married and settle down.


  • In negative sentences, should not is preferred to ought to, which is grammatically correct but awkward. Should not is much better.
  • The university should not be hiring new staff at the moment.
  • The university ought not hire at the moment.


Past – Should have + past participle (V3) describes actions or events that we expected to have occurred in the past.

  • The project should have been completed last year.
  • The researchers should have compiled the documents.
  • The specimen should have given us more evidence to confirm our theory.

Exercise A:  Rephrase the following sentences using should and ought to. Some will be passive.

Example: I expect the project to be finished soon.
          The project should be finished soon.

  1. She expects the book to be finished shortly.
  1. He expects to find the evidence in the general’s correspondence.
  1. They expect to learn new facts.
  1. I expect to use several sources.
  1. She expects to introduce a different perspective.

Exercise B: Rephrase the following sentences using should have + past participle (V3).
Example: They expected to find gold.
           They should have found gold.

  1. We expected to discover the sunken ship in the Black Sea.
  1. We expected to have uncovered the coffin yesterday.
  1. He expected to meet the general at the Naval Museum.
  1. They expected to get permission to go easily.
  1. We expected to have scientific tests on the object.

Exercise C: Write expectations using the following cues.
Example: world war
There should not be another world war.

These are multiple possible answers.

  1. The European Union
  1. China
  1. Feminism
  1. Communism


  1. the environment