Olive Tree and Fruit
Olive is a long shrub or an evergreen tree with dense branches, a broad top which may reach a height of 10 meters.
It has a large, distorted and bumpy trunk. As the tree ages, the smooth grey trunk gradually starts to crack. Crown of the tree widens as the height increases every year. It is a perennial tree and may live approximately 2000 years. The crown is open and symmetrical in fertile land, but denser and rounded in infertile land. Shoots are grey in colour and almost triangular.
Olive tree blossoms in the spring. Its stone starts to harden and fruit to ripen in the summer months. Starting to change colour in September through November, olive first turns from green to violet and then to black, thus ripening. This stage is called “variegation”. Harvest of the ripe olives continues from September through February. The quality of the olive oil to be obtained is closely related with how olives are picked. #Olive oil of the best quality is obtained from the olives picked from their branches one by one. Olive is also picked by dropping on the ground or by suctioning machinery. Olive should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting. To do this, olives allocated to olive oil extraction are first subjected to defoliation and washing processes in automated machines. Then the olives are crushed in presses, thus ensuring olive oil to be extracted from the tissues of the fruits. Approximately 10 kilograms of olives are used to extract a kilo of early-harvested olive oil. In other methods, 3-8 kilos of olives are sufficient to extract a kilo of olive oil.