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  • Mahir 10:40 am on March 23, 2020 Permalink |  

    9 Amazing Oregano compounds. 

    Essential oils of oregano are widely recognised for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and anti-fungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and cancer suppressor agents.

    These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding essential oils of oregano and their beneficial effects on health.

    Principle components of essential oils of different oregano species.

    Oregano SpeciesOriginComponentsYield *Reference
    H. patensMexicoThymol, trans-piperitol, carvacrol acetate, carvacrol, camphene, β-myrcene, γ-terpinene, cis-p-mentha-1(7), 8-dien-2-ol, α-muurolene, α-calacorene, bulnesol, cadalene, viridiflorol.NR[16]
    L. grandisBrazilCarvacrol (37.12%), p-cymene (11.64%), thymol (7.83%), β-caryophyllene (3.93%).2.7%[38]
    L. graveolensMexicoThymol, carvacrol acetate, carvacrol, camphene, β-myrcene, γ-terpinene, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, viridiflorol.NR[16]
    L. origanoidesColombiaThymol (78.7%), p-cymene (6.6%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), trans-β-caryophyllene (2.1%).NR[39]
    L. palmeriMexicoThymol, α-cedrene, trans-piperitol, eugenol, carvacrol acetate, β-selinene, γ-cadinene, spathulenol.NR[16]
    O. acutidensMexicoCarvacrol (8.76–24.57%), p-cymene (14.25–22.37%), thymol (15.11–21.39%).5.0–6.0%[40]
    TurkeyCarvacrol (76.21%), p-cymene (7.42%), borneol (3.19%), γ-terpinene (1.38%).1.45%[41]
    TurkeyCarvacrol (65.13%), meta-cymene (9.15%), trans-β-caryophyllene (4.43%), γ-terpinene (3.54%).3.1%[42]
    O. x appliiArgentinaThymol (30.77%), trans-sabinene hydrate (29.63%), γ-terpinene (4.4%), terpinen-4-ol (3.23%).1.83 ± 0.27 mg/g dw[43]
    O. ehrenbergiiLebanonCarvacrol (79.0%), p-cymene (4.4%), carvacrol methyl ether (2.7%), γ-terpinene (2.6%).3.19%[44]
    O. bilgeriTurkeyCarvacrol (84.30–90.20%), p-cymene (3.40–5.85%), γ-terpinene (0.47–1.20%), thymol (0.69–1.08%).0.54–0.57%[33]
    O. libanoticumLebanonβ-Caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%), germacrene D (17.2%), thymol methyl ether (10.5%).0.16%[44]
    O. majoranaBrazil1,8-Cineole (20.9%), terpinen-4-ol(20.4%), γ-terpinene (8.5%), p-cymene (7.0%).NR[45]
    O. x majoricumColombiatrans-Sabinene hydrate (14.5%), γ-terpinene (14.0%), carvacrol methyl ether (6.0%), terpinen-4-ol (6.0%).NR[39]
    TurkeyLimonene (88.01%), thymol (11.98%).NR[46]
    Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (24.3–28.1%), thymol (12.1–17.4%), γ-terpinene (7.0–7.5%).NR[22]
    Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (36.77%), thymol (17.77%), γ-terpinene (5.9%), α-terpinene (3.9%).3.9 ± 0.25 mg/g dw[43]
    O. hypericifoliumTurkeyp-Cymene (34.33%), carvacrol (21.76%), thymol (19.54%), γ-terpinene (13.91%).2.9%[47]
    O. onitesGreeceCarvacrol (79.63%), γ-terpinene (3.89%), p-cymene (3.51%), β-caryophyllene (2.24%).3.62%[18]
    GreeceCarvacrol (62.6%), p-cymene (8.87%), γ-terpinene (8.45%), β-myrcene (2.92%).NR[48]
    GreeceCarvacrol (69.0–92.6%), p-cymene (0.5–9.5%), γ-terpinene (0.3–7.9%), borneol (0.8–5.5%).3.0–7.0%[49]
    TurkeyCarvacrol (85.86%), γ-terpinene (4.43%), β-phellandrene (3.20%), p-cymene (1.83%).4.7 ± 0.06%[21]
    TurkeyCarvacrol (83.97–88.65%), thymol (0.80–7.48%), γ-terpinene (2.63–6.15%), p-cymene (1.52–3.16%).2.5–3.2%[50]
    O. syriacumEgyptCarvacrol (81.38%), p-cymene (8.48%), γ-terpinene (1.98%), β-myrcene (1.32%).5.5%[51]
    EgyptThymol (31.73%), γ-terpinene (14.32%), linalool (9.44%), terpinen-4-ol (7.68%).4.63%[51]
    EgyptThymol (21.04%), γ-terpinene (18.96%), terpinen-4-ol (17.20%), α-terpinene (7.41%).0.6%[52]
    LebanonCarvacrol (60.8%), p-cymene (8.4%), thymol (7.9%), γ-terpinene (7.5%).1.65%[44]
    O. syriacum ssp. syriacumJordanThymol (51.8%), carvacrol (34.4%), p-cymene (3.9%).2.0–2.2%[53]
    JordanThymol (72.4%), γ-terpinene (7.8%), p-cymene (5.4%), carvacrol (3.5%).2.0–2.2%
    O. vulgare L.Argentinap-Cymene (26.00%), γ-terpinene (21.89%), terpinen-4-ol (16.29%), β-caryophyllene (8.25%).NR[54]
    ArgentinaCarvacrol (26.70%), p-cymene (15.20%), γ-terpinene (15.10%), terpinene (7.50%).NR[55]
    Argentinaγ-Terpinene (25.1%), terpinen-4-ol (16.7%), carvacrol (16.2%), α-terpinene (8.54%).NR[56]
    Argentinaγ-Terpinene (32.1%), α-terpinene (15.1%), p-cymene (8.0%), thymol (8.0%).NR[57]
    ArgentinaCarvacrol (81.92%), γ-terpinene (4.49%), thymol (3.5%), p-cymene (3.07%).NR[58]
    BrazilCarvacrol (73.9%), γ-terpinene (3.6%), thymol (3.0%), β-caryophyllene (2.8%).NR[45]
    Chilecis-β-Terpineol (16.49%), thymol (13.26%), terpinen-4-ol (10.24%), α-terpineol (4.35%).NR[59]
    ChinaCarvacrol (30.73%), thymol (18.81%), p-cymene (10.88%), β-caryophyllene (8.21%).NR[37]
    Chinaβ-Citronellol (85.3%), citronellol acetate (5.2%), β-citronellal (1.2%).0.7%[60]
    ChinaThymol (42.9%), citronellol (12.2%), β-caryophyllene (7.8%), p-cymen-2-ol (7.5%).0.3%[60]
    Chinaβ-Citronellol (75.0%), geraniol (7.7%), citronellol acetate (3.4%).0.3%[60]
    China1,8-Cineole (20.8%), β-caryophyllene (10.2%), eugenol methyl ether (9.8%), citronellol (8.8%).0.3%[60]
    ChinaCaryophyllene oxide (32.9%), β-caryophyllene (17.7%), citronellol (10.2%), germacrene D (9.8%).0.1%[60]
    ColombiaThymol (21.5%), p-cymene (21.0%), γ-terpinene (20.3%), α-terpinene (5.9%).NR[39]
    GreeceCarvacrol (63.03%), thymol (15.09%), p-cymene (10.47%), γ-terpinene (3.43%).NR[61]
    IndiaCarvacrol (35.02–62.81%), p-cymene (8.60–46.59%), γ-terpinene (2.49–19.11%).0.20–1.30%[62]
    IranCarvacrol (29.85%), γ-terpinene (20.94%), α-himachalene (12.17%), β-pinene (11.67%).0.80%[63]
    IranCarvacrol (23.54%), γ-terpinene (20.50%), thymol (15.41%), germacrene D-4-ol (9.26%).1.26%[63]
    IranCarvacrol (59.37%), γ-terpinene (18.36%), cedrene (6.65%).1.66%[63]
    IranCarvacrol (58.51%), humulene (11.46%), γ-terpinene (9.56%).0.93%[63]
    IranCarvacrol (67.09%), γ-terpinene (7.71%), humulene (7.67%).1.36%[63]
    ItalyCavacrol (65.94%), p-cymene (9.33%), γ-terpinene (5.25%), β-caryophyllene (3.72%).NR[64]
    ItalyCarvacrol (71.8%), p-cymene (11.6%), β-caryophyllene (2.7%), linalool (1.8%).NR[65]
    MoroccoCarvacrol (34.0%), γ-terpinene (21.6%), p-cymene (9.4%), thymol (3.3%).2.7%[66]
    Pakistanβ-Citronellol (72.7%), thymol (7.2%), citronellol acetate (5.9%).0.3%[60]
    PolandCarvacrol (26.38–36.72%), thymol (16.59–25.58%), γ-terpinene (10.06–16.11%), p-cymene (6.09–6.76%).NR[31]
    PortugalCarvacrol (14.5%), β-fenchyl alcohol (12.8%), γ-terpinene (11.6%), δ-terpineol (7.5%).NR[67]
    SerbiaSabinene (10.2%), terpinen-4-ol (9.3%), 1,8-cineole (5.8%), γ-terpinene (5.6%).0.17%[68]
    SerbiaCarvacrol (64.5%), p-cymene (10.9%), γ-terpinene (10.8%), thymol (3.5%).1.5%[69]
    SerbiaCarvacrol (64.5%), p-cymene (10.9%), γ-terpinene (10.8%), thymol (3.5%).NR[70]
    SerbiaCarvacrol (77.6%), p-cymene (5.14%), trans-β-caryophyllene (2.45%), linalool (2.44%).NR[71]
    SpainTerpinen-4-ol (24.57%), carvacrol (16.09%), thymol (9.03%), γ-terpinene (6.20%).516 mg/plant[27]
    USACarvacrol (17.9–81.8%), p-cymene (2.62–25.7%), γ-terpinene (2.5–19.4%), β-myrcene (0.58–6.06%).0.114–2.312%[35]
    O. vulgare L. ssp. glandulosumAlgeriaThymol (34.2%), carvacrol (30.5%), γ-terpinene (13.4%), p-cymene (6.6%).2.0–2.2%[53]
    AlgeriaThymol (51.1%), γ-terpinene (14.5%), p-cymene (7.5%), carvacrol (6.8%).2.0–2.2%[53]
    Tunisiap-Cymene (35.7–46.3%), thymol (18.4–39.1%), γ-terpinene (11.7–24.2%), carvacrol (1.7–15.1%).2.5–4.6%[72]
    TunisiaThymol (31.8–46.1%), p-cymene (11.5–35.7%), γ-terpinene (24.0–27.1%), α-terpinene (1.9–3.2%).4.3–5.8%[73]
    TunisiaCarvacrol (65.01%), p-cymene (9.00%), γ-terpinene (4.25%), borneol (3.19%).1.87–3.42%[74]
    O. vulgare L. ssp. gracileIranCarvacrol (46.86%), γ-terpinene (14.16%), p-cymene (11.63%), carvacrol methyl ether (5.97%).≈2.0%[29]
    TurkeyThymol (7.02–40.04%), carvacrol (8.21–33.21%), γ-terpinene (9.15–27.82%), p-cymene (3.07–23.52%).0.25–0.50%[75]
    O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtumArgentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (22.9%), thymol (18.6%), γ-terpinene (7.1%), terpinen-4-ol (6.2%).NR[22]
    Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (17.9%), thymol (17.1%), terpinen-4-ol (9.5%), γ-terpinene (8.0%).NR[22]
    Argentinaγ-Terpinene (13.7%), terpinen-4-ol (11.2%), α-terpinene (9.9%), trans-sabinene hydrate (8.3%).NR[76]
    ColombiaCarvacrol (90.3%), thymol (3.5%), p-cymene (2.7%), γ-terpinene (1.0%).NR[39]
    GreeceCarvacrol (70.38%), p-cymene (8.17%), γ-terpinene (7.78%), β-myrcene (2.37%).NR[48]
    GreeceCarvacrol (90.29%), γ-terpinene (3.09%), p-cymene (2.25%), β-caryophyllene (1.81%).7.77%[18]
    GreeceCarvacrol (81.28–91.21%), p-cymene (1.52–6.40%), γ-terpinene (0.49–4.01%), β-caryophyllene (0.94–2.03%).4.71–5.00%[77]
    GreeceCarvacrol (56.46–82.70%), p-cymene (9.54–21.40%), β-disavolene (1.09–3.06%).0.63–4.25%[78]
    HungaryCarvacrol (82.75%), p-cymene (6.58%), γ-terpinene (5.78%).4.46%[30]
    Italyterpinen-4-ol (13.27–17.51%), γ-terpinene (14.58–14.95%), carvacrol (12.31–14.58%), p-cymene (8.43–10.07%).0.063–0.165%[79]
    ItalyThymol (37.9%), γ-terpinene (24.5%), p-cymene (16.3%), α-terpinene (4.3%).NR[80]
    Italyγ-Terpinene (29.41%), thymol (26.86%), p-cymene (8.20%), α-terpinene (5.93%).5.4%[81]
    ItalyThymol (37.22%), γ-terpinene (26.37%), p-cymene (6.83%), α-terpinene (4.02%).2.4%[81]
    ItalyThymol (36.46%), γ-terpinene (20.77%), p-cymene (8.31%), carvacrol methyl ether (6.21%).3.6%[81]
    ItalyThymol (30.25%), γ-terpinene (25.89%), p-cymene (7.62%), carvacrol methyl ether (5.63%).4.2%[81]
    ItalyThymol y carvacrol (65.3–84.7%), linalool (0.1–2.6%), carvacrol methyl ether (0.4–1.9%).1.0–2.7%[82]
    ItalyThymol (18.16–56.37%), γ-terpinene (12.70–32.70%), p-cymene (8.22–10.30%).1.7–4.5%[28]
    LithuaniaCarvacrol (72.4–88.2%), γ-terpinene (4.1–8.7%), p-cymene (2.0–3.2%), β-caryophyllene (0.9–3.0%).35.50–325.45 dm3/ha[24]
    SerbiaCarvacrol (74.65%), p-cymene (5.87%), γ-terpinene (5.04%), trans-β-caryophyllene (1.76%).1.34%[36]
    TurkeyLinalool (96.31%), β-caryophyllene (1.27%).7.31%[83]
    TurkeyCarvacrol (80.09%), γ-terpinene (12.01%), p-cymene (1.72%), α-terpinene (1.58%).5.9 ± 0.02%[21]
    O. vulgare L. ssp. virensArgentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (27.77%), thymol (26.1%), γ-terpinene (5.9%), α-terpinene (4.17%).2.17 ± 0.32 mg/g dw[43]
    Iran(Z)-α-Bisabolene (39.17%), sabinene (11.52%), carvacrol (5.23%), β-bisabolene (4.24%).≈0.3%[29]
    Portugalα-Terpineol (0.1–65.1%), γ-terpinene (0.3–34.25), linalool (2.0–27.4%), carvacrol (0–34.2%), E-caryophyllene (2.4–11.0%).0.8–1.2%[84]
    O. vulgare L. ssp. vulgareArgentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (23.4–27.2%), thymol (14.4–17.2%), terpinen-4-ol (7.8–11.0%), γ-terpinene (7.3–9.8%).NR[22]
    Argentinatrans-Sabinene hydrate (32.47%), thymol (20.5%), γ-terpinene (15.47%), terpinen-4-ol (5.03%).1.97 ± 0.22 mg/g dw[43]
    IranThymol (37.13%), γ-terpinene (9.67%), carvacrol (9.57%), carvacrol methyl ether (6.88%).0.5%[85]
    ItalySpathulenol (18.6%), carvacrol (11.7%), β-caryophyllene (8.8%), terpinen-4-ol (5.6%).0.13%[26]
    ItalyCarvacrol (14.3%), spathulenol (9.4%), β-caryophyllene (5.3%), terpinen-4-ol (5.0%).0.18%[26]
    LithuaniaSabinene (6.6–28.2%), β-caryophyllene (7.3–15.5%), E-β-ocimene (4.4–15.1%), allo-ocimene (7.7–12.1%).3.08–36.65 dm3/ha[24]
    TurkeyThymol (58.31%), carvacrol (16.11%), p-cymene (13.45%), γ-terpinene (4.64%).5.09%[83]
    PolandSabinene (10.85–25.46%), Z-(β)-ocimene (9.10–16.33%), germacrene D (9.36–15.34%), E-caryophyllene (9.38–12.87%).0.66–0.86%[86]

    * dry weight (dw); NR: not reported.

    Source NIH.

     
    • Mahir 10:20 am on March 23, 2020 Permalink |  

      Inspiring Reset 2020 

      Fasting

      Some of us practise this intermittent fasting stuff – to rebuild and heal, and to allow our biology to reset from what we have been feeding it. So that it can work as it is supposed to, so we can forever more maintain this homeostasis, or, which is more likely for some, that we can go on feeding it stuff that really doesn’t help it.

      If we need it, she needs it. Ss the micro; so is the macro.

      Heal and Rebuild

      This wet rock we live on also needs to rebuild, and heal. To slowly clear away and reset from what we have been dumping into her. I walked out in the city, and beyond the movie set like ambiance, the air just feels cleaner.

      Most of you know, I worked from home 4 years prior to this, yet I’ve never seen so many birds, and different types of birds in my garden.

      Future

      Obviously the martial law stuff that’s about to come is not going to be nice, by any definition, however the stopping ‘production’ aspect of this, if coordinated, could actually do for this wet rock, what fasting does for us.

      I think we could do this once a month every year.

       
      • Mahir 5:03 pm on March 5, 2020 Permalink |  

        Seriously understand immune response 11 

        The only way for you to develop an immunity to the coronavirus or this Covid19-2S and L is to allow the natural immune response of the body to create an antibody and then an Immunoglobulin.

        immune response

        They then, like the virus itself, will also be spread between the human community population, and we all get immunity gradually.

        This is not going to happen properly if you take antibiotics because you actually don’t have the biome to help create an immune response and consequently an antibody against this virus.

        immune response

        Furthermore, none of the current antibiotics taken is going to have any effect on the virus because antibiotics don’t kill viruses. they kill living things, viruses are not alive. They just function.

        it will a combination of your gut bacteria and your bodies immune memory that will create an antibody against the virus.

        What’s more distressing is if you have a diminished gut biome because of constant antibiotics use, the virus will more easily infiltrate your cells because you don’t have the soldiers, metaphorically speaking, to fight against the virus.

        Mahir Sayar.

         
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